|Queen Makeda, (Queen of Saba)|
|*The name Sheba is Saba in the Ethiopian Language and the two names can be used interchangeably: However I will |
keep to the Ethiopian usage of Saba
About a thousand years before the birth of Christ, the Queen of Saba, (Sheba), a descendant of a powerful line of kings,
took the sovereign authority of her forebears with the throne name of Queen of Saba, and began ruling over ancient
Ethiopia and Yemen from her capital at Saba near Aksum. She inherited the throne from her father Tewasia as the
fifty-second sovereign of Ethiopia and reigned over her joint kingdoms for thirty-one years. The Queen of Saba was
known by various names, including that of the “Queen of Saba”, her throne name mentioned in the Old Testament. In
the New Testament she is known as the Queen of the South which literally means in Ge’ez “Negesta Azeb.” She is
known as Queen of the south because of the fact that she ruled over Ethiopia and Yemen, both located to the South of
Jerusalem. In the Kebre Nagast (Glory of Kings) she is mentioned as Makeda, her first name which was given to her by
her parents, meaning the king’s cushion which means support. Arab historians refer to her as Queen Belqis.
The Queen of Saba, considered as the greatest ruler of Aksum, ruled over both Ethiopia and Yemen. The history of the
Queen occupies a very important chapter in the history of Ethiopia, owing to the continuity in government and
traditions and administration and the memory of the greatness that has been passed from generation to generation
through oral history as well as books like the Kebre Nagast (The Kebre Nagast was written in Ge’ez by Nebure Id
Yishaq, the administrator of Aksum, in the 4th century A.D. It tells the story of Solomon and Saba, and describes how
Ethiopia came to possess the Ark of the Covenant containing the two Tablets of the Law written by the Hand of God. It
is the royal chronicle which records the glory of the sovereigns of Ethiopia.) The Ethiopia Emperors also traced their
lineage to Menelik, son of Queen of Saba, from the very beginning of the establishment of the Solomonic line until the
Ethiopian people’s revolution in 1974.
The Queen of Saba was an energetic ruler who maintained and expanded existing commercial activity, the trade route
of which extended as far as Palestine and India. To facilitate commerce, she had a fleet of seventy-three seaworthy
ships and a caravan of five hundred and twenty camels. These means of transport and the conduct of trade were the
responsibility of Tamrin, reputed to have been her trusted “Minister of Trade”. Ethiopian traders took with them
civet, incense, gold, ivory precious stones and ebony to foreign countries for trading purposes. Traders from other
countries also plied to and from Ethiopia carrying precious stones, gold, and civet and spread the fame of Ethiopia
and Queen of Saba far and wide.
Photo: Queen of Saba upon meeting King Solomon
Source: Tsega Tekle Haimanot ~ 4 Feb 2021
|Beautiful artifact... InI view the above pictures/portraits as the “virgin” Queen of Sheba/Saba, Queen Makeda, |
embracing her son, Menelik I; the Son she conceived with King Solomon, fulfilling Isaiah 9v6. It is my belief that the
pictures/portraits above have been manipulated over time to reflect an 'Immaculate Conception' by a virgin Mary.
I apologize if I offend you. Again, I view things from a different perspective... I don’t believe in “immaculate
conception”, so I define the pictures as I can make sense of them. I do believe that Iyesus (Jesus) of Nazareth is related
to King Solomon through lineage of Rehoboam and was a Christ child (child of God) born of Mary; however, I’m an
adherent of His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I, who is of the lineage of Menelik I, the first born of Solomon
and the older brother of Rehoboam. This makes Menelik I the rightful heir to the throne as the first born son of King
Solomon. It makes sense to me that when Queen Makeda gave birth to Menelik I (and did not send him back to his
father, King Solomon, until he was 21), would have a portrait holding Menelik I by herself with Archangels St. Michael
and St. Gabriel, similar to the pictures/portraits above. My use of ‘manipulated’ is based on my overstanding of the
Council of Nicaea in 325 AD where the characteristics of Iyesus Kiristos was changed to be more Caucasian than
African. The dominant gene of a child born of African heritage, like Iyesus Kiristos, should be properly reflected in
likeness and truth! Just asking... would you change your view of the pictures, if at the Council of Nicea 325AD the
council changed the original name from ‘Queen Makeda’ to ‘Virgin Mary’ and injected that change into religious
writings and interpretations at that time? Please note that I first came to the higherstanding of God because of my
love of the words and works of Iyesus Kiristos. I hope my words provide clarity on why I express my views as I have.
Source: Michael Clarke ~ FB Post ~ 14 September 2019
|Nyahbinghi Rastafari ~ 22 August 2020|
Blessed be the covenant of Mercy :
Blessed be the Virgin Maryam ; blessed is thou amongs women and blessed is the Fruit of thy womb ! The triple Queen . On this
day Aug 22nd ( due to the Ethiopian leap year, usually the 21st August) is celebrated the covenant that Iyesus ( Yahshua the
Christ) made with His Mother the Virgin Maryam, the triple Queen.
Taken from an Anicent Ethiopian Manuscript , still in the British Museum, and which is a part of the Magdala collection that was
stolen from Ethiopia.
|Acts 8 v26-27|
26) And the angel of the Lord spake unto Philip, saying, Arise, and go toward the south unto the way that
goeth down from Jerusalem unto Gaza, which is desert. 27) And he arose and went; and, behold, a man of
Ethiopia, an eunuch of great authority under Candace queen of the Ethiopians, who had the charge of all
her treasure, and had come to Jerusalem for to worship.
Acts 8 v34-39
34) And the eunuch answered Philip, and said, I pray thee, of whom speaketh the prophet this? of himself,
or of some other man? 35) Then Philip opened his mouth, and began at the same scripture, and preached
unto him Joshua, the Christ. 36) And as they went on their way they came unto a certain water; and the
eunuch said, See, here is water, what doth hinder me to be baptized?
37) And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I
believe that Joshua, the Christ is the Son of God. 38) And he commanded the chariot to stand still; and
they went down both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him. 39) And when they
were come up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip, that the eunuch saw him no more;
and he went on his way rejoicing.
|2nd century AD
|Kingdom of Axum becomes a regional trading power.|
|4th century AD
|Coptic Christianity introduced from Egypt.|
|The Ethiopian Church is unique in that it adheres closely to elements of Mosaic Law other Christian |
churches believe were superseded with the New Covenant, such as male circumcision and most kosher
dietary regulations. The Ethiopian Church contains several books of Scripture within its canon that are
extracanonical to the rest of Christendom, most notably the Kebra Nagast (Ge’ez: Glory of Kings), a highly
symbolic, complex text which purports to describe how Queen Makeda of Axum (known to the West as the
“Queen of Sheba”) met King Solomon and gave birth to his son, Menelek, who, according to the account,
brought the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia with him when he succeeded his mother as king there.
Source: Tsega Tekle Haimanot ~ 12 September 2017
|THE INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY TO ETHIOPIA|
St. Frumentius and the Conversion of Ezana c. 330 A.D
Although Christianity became the official religion of the Aksumite kingdom in the fourth century, the
religion had been known in Ethiopia since a much earlier time. In the Acts of the Apostles, 8:26-40, we are
told of a certain Eunuch, the treasurer of Queen Candace of Ethiopia, who went to Jerusalem to worship the
God of Israel. There he met Philip the Deacon and was baptized by him. Ethiopian tradition asserts that he
returned home and evangelized the people. In his Homily on Pentecost, St. John Chrysostom mentions that
the Ethiopians were present in the Holy City on the day of Pentecost. Later, when the Apostles went out to
preach the Gospel, Matthew was allotted the task of carrying the good news to Ethiopia, where he suffered
martyrdom. Ethiopian sources, such as the Synaxarium, make no mention of this, however; on the contrary,
Ethiopians believe that received Christianity without shedding apostolic blood. Nevertheless, Christianity
without certainly known in Ethiopia before the time of Frumentius, being the faith practiced by many of the
merchants from the Roman Empire Settled in the Aksumite region. In important cities, such as Axum and
Adulis, these Christian merchants had their prayer houses and openly practiced their religion.
The introduction of Christianity as the state religion of Ethiopia came about not as the result of organized
evangelical activity from outside the country, but because it was the desire of the king. The story of the
conversation of the Axumites has come down to us in the work of the contemporary Church historian,
Rufinus (d 410 A.D). Meropius, a philosopher from Tyre, set out to visit India accompanied by two young
relatives, Frumentius and Aedesius, Apparently they followed the usual itinerary of the time along the
Africa coast of the Red Sea. In the course of their journey they run short of provisions and put in at a port of
the African coast. The local inhabitants, however, were hostile to Roman citizens, as they massacred
Meropius and all aboard the ship, sparing only the two boys, who were taken to the king. They soon gained
his interest and won his confidence. The younger, Aedesius, he made his cup-bearer, while the elder,
Frumentius, who showed signs of wisdom and maturity, become his treasurer and secretary. The king died
early, leaving his wife with an infant son as heir to the throne. Now the dying king had given Frumentius
and Aedesius leave to return to their own country if they so wished, but the Queen-Mother who was left as
Regent, begged them to remain to help her administer the kingdom until her son should grow up. The
young men agreed, and stayed to carry out the task faithfully.
The thought of Frumentius then began to turn towards matters of faith. He sought out Christians among the
Roman merchants settled at Axum, and encouraged them to establish meeting-places for prayer, helping
then in every way he could, according them favours and benefits, and gradually spreading the seed of
Christianity among the people. The young king himself became a convert. When he was old enough to rule
the country alone, Frumentius and Aedesius asked him for permission to leave Axum. Aedesius returned
home to Tyre, but Frumentius went to Alexandria and laid the whole affair before the newly- appointed
patriarch, Athanasius, begging him to appoint a bishop to minister to the needs of the growing Christian
community at Axum. The patriarch summoned a council of priests to consider the matter. It was agreed
that Frumentius himself should be consecrated as the first Bishop of Axum. Thus he returned to propagate
the faith in the land he knew so well so well. Although Rufinus does not specify the name of the country to
which Frumentius went, other sources are more specific in this respect. A letter from the Emperor
Constantius, written in 356 A.D to his “precious brothers”, Aezana and Saezana, rulers of Axum, concerns
the Bishop Frumentius. Furthermore, the inscriptions and coins of the Emperor Ezana testify to his
adoption of Christianity. In his earlier inscriptions he styles himself “Son of unconquered Mahrem”, but in
the inscription after his victory over Nubia the employed anew terminology, speaking of “the Lord of
heaven and earth”, and describing how he had destroyed the “images in their temples”, thus affirming his
dissociation from paganism. A recently discovered Greek inscription belonging to Ezana leaves no doubt on
this matter. It begins: “in the faith of God and the power of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost”.
Likewise, the coins minted in the early part of Ezana’s reign bear the pagan symbol of the crescent and disc,
while those minted in the later part of his reign bear the sign of the cross.
The introduction of Christianity as the state religion marked a turning point in Ethiopia history. Christianity
does not constitute a purely religious phenomenon on the country, but plays an integral role in all aspects
of national life. The Church is not only a religious institution, but has for many centuries been the
repository of the cultural, political and social life of the people. The true feeling of the people who first
received Christianity seems to have been expressed in the names they bestowed upon Frumentius, which
are Abba Salama. Kassate Berhan, “Father of peace and Revealer of light”. It is interesting to note that
Ezana and Saezana appear to have baptized with names also signifying illumination – Abreha (He
illuminated) and Atsbeha (He brought the dawn).
In Ethiopia, the diffusion of Christianity did not follow the same pattern as in the Graeco-Roman world,
where Christianity was confined to the lower levels of society for three centuries, and utterly rejected by
the ruling classes. Only at the beginning of the fourth century did it begin to gain a few converts among
members of the imperial family. In Ethiopia the converse was true. Christianity was introduced first in to
the royal court, and from there gradually penetrated among the common people. Likewise, in the Roman
Empire, the Apostles and later the Church fathers were actively engaged in the evangelization of the
people; in Ethiopia, Christianity was voluntarily adopted.
The birth of Ethiopian Church took place at a time when the Arian heresy was at its peak. When Frumentius
was consecrated, the Patriarchate of Alexandria, under the leadership of Athanasius, “the Column of
Orthodoxy”, was the stronghold of the Nicene faith against Arianism. Constantius expelled Athanasius,
however and installed an Arian, George of Cappadocia, in his place. The first ecumenical Council, where
Arius was condemned as a heretic, took place in 325, Shortly before the establishment of the Ethiopian
church, but the decision of the Council was nevertheless regarded as binding, and Ethiopia stood by
Athanasius, and the Nicene Faith. In vain, Constantius, the son of Constantine the Great, tried to bring
Ethiopia onto the heresy of Arius. It was for this reason that he addressed the orthodox group of any
support, and ensures international recognition of Arianism. A certain Theophilus, a priest from Socotra,
highly respected for his impeccable moral character, was entrusted with this mission to Axum, but he was
apparently not even allowed to enter Aksumite territory. His mission failed, and Frumentius remained in
Axum, to continue the teaching which he had learnt from Athanasius. The Ethiopian church holds
Athanasius in special veneration. He was canonized as a saint, and his work, The Life of Saint Anthony, was
translated into Ethiopic. One of the fourteen Anaphora’s of the Ethiopian Church is attributed to
Athanasius. The 318 Father who participated in the First Ecumenical Council are also specially venerated,
and another Anaphora of the Liturgy bears their name, as the Anaphora of the Three Hundred Fathers.
Source: FB Post ~ 10-13-2017 ~ Retrieved: 10-16-2017~ https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=
|I-Ras Black E'Dd ~ 11 August 2020|
Emperor Yekonu Amlak
It would be remiss of me to pass today by without
commenting on a major anniversary in Ethiopian
History. On this day 750 years ago Emperor Yekonu
Amlak ascended the Ethiopian throne, restoring the
Solomonic Dynasty, and deposing the Zagwe
dynasty and its last Emperor Yitbarek.
Yekonu Amlak was descended from the Axumite
Solomonic Dynasty through his father Abeto Tesfa
Iyesus. Tesfa Iyesus was the son of Adam Asgid (also
known as Widim Asgid), the son of Bahar Seged, the
son of Yacob, the son of Asfeha, the son of Negus
Zaré, son of Sinfe Arad, son of Agba Tsion, son of
Mahibere Widam. Mahibere Widam was the son of
the Axumite Emperor Dil Na’od, who had fled to
Shewa to escape the massacre of the males of the
royal family by Yodit Gudit. For ten generations,
these Solomonic princes had presided over Shewa
while the throne was occupied by the Zagwe
Dynasty, biding their time and hoping to return to
the throne of their ancestors.
|Just as important to Yekonu Amlak’s success though were his close blood and marriage ties to a large |
group of influential monastic leaders within the hierarchy of the Orthodox Church through his mother
Emmene Tsion. Many of these influential church relatives are now Saints of the Orthodox Church in
Ethiopia. Most notably is St. Tekle Haimanot himself.
Yekonu Amlak as a boy was hidden away by his mother at the Island monastery of Kidus Estifanos on Lake
Hayq, fearful that the Zagwe’s would eliminate this rival to their throne. The Monastery was led by the
great Abbot Abba Iyesus Moa, who was deeply respected and well connected at the Zagwe Court.
However, Emmene Tsion’s influential church relatives may have played a role in convincing Iyesus Moa to
not just give sanctuary to the little Prince, but groom him for greater things. Traditional sources state that
Yekonu Amlak reaches the high level of “Memher” in church Liturgy and hymnology.
Eventually though Yekonu Amlak was imprisoned as a young man on Mt. Malot by an Emperor referred to
in the chronicles as “Za Ilmaknun” (the unknown). This king is said to have been the son of Nakuto Le-Ab,
and nephew of Lalibela himself. His actual name was possibly purged from the record by either Yekonu
Amlak or Yitbarek. Some argue that this king was Nakuto Le-Ab himself. Never the less, Yekonu Amlak
escaped and raised a rebellion in Shewa against the Zagwe. “Za Ilmaknun” in the mean time had been
deposed by his cousin Yitbarek, son of Lalibela. Yitbarek and Yekonu Amlak confronted each other and
vied for the throne. As Yekonu Amlak’s power grew and that of the Zagwe’s wained, it was the leading
clergy that finally brokered the agreement in which the Zagwe stepped of the throne and yielded it once
more to the ancient Solomonic Dynasty. In exchange, the Solomonic Emperors were to recognize in
perpetuity, the right of the heirs of the Zagwe’s to the title of Wagshum (Ruler of Wag) and hegemony over
the districts of Wag and Lasta. They were given the right to sit in the Emperor’s presence, the right to a
silver throne a step below his golden one, and precedence over all the nobility. (There are those who
dispute this and who argue that Yitbarek was killed, and another Zagwe Emperor whose name was later
purged tried to rally their forces and failed). Credit was given to the great Abbots Tekle Haimanot and
Iyesus Moa for brokering the transition.
Yekonu Amlak would rule for 15 years. He is said to have corresponded with the Byzantine Emperor
Michael VIII Palaiologos, and even sent him a gift of several giraffes. His initially warm relations with his
Muslim neighbors however, were strained by the great difficulties he faced in obtaining a Bishop from the
Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria, then under the rule of the Mameluke Sultan Baibar.
Yekonu Amlak died on June 19, 1285 and was succeeded by his son Yigbe-a Tsion. His descendant Emperor
Beede Mariam I had his remains re-entered at the great church of Atronsa Mariam. All the Emperors of
Ethiopia since that time were descendants of Yekonu Amlak.
This anniversary is a moment of history, but it is a cornerstone of what makes us who we are today. We
should do well to remember it.
|EMPEROR ZERA YACOB|
Emperor Zera Yacob, who ruled from 1434-68 under
the regnal name Kwestantinos I or Constantine I,
was the greatest of the emperors in medieval
Ethiopian history. Born at Telq in the province of
Fatajar (now part of the Oromia Region, near the
Awash River), Zara Yaqob was the youngest son of
Dawit I and his youngest wife, Igzi Kebra.He’s noted
for his reorganization of the government, literary
achievements, piety, and social reform.
Zera Yacob also occupies a major place in the
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church for his
expansion and strengthening of the Christian Faith
in Ethiopia. His period was also noted for the
beginning of the first contacts with Christian Europe.
He associated himself very closely to the Church
which he reformed, laying down saint’s days and
days of feast and fasting, and decreeing that
Christians should tattoo themselves with a cross.
During the time of Emperor Zera Yacob literature
flourished. He was a patron of literature and he
himself wrote a number of books on religion, such as
Metsehaf Berhan (Book of Light), the Metsehaf Milad
("The Book of Nativity") Metsehaf Selassie ("The
Book of the Trinity") and compiled the Fetha Nagast
(Law of the Kings) the Law code used in the courts
until 1930. Many books from foreign languages were
also translated into Ge’ez.
While on his throne, Emperor Zera Yacob had a
spiritual life comparable to that in a monastery. Zera
Yacob himself as well established many churches
and monasteries, the most famous being that of
Dabra Metmaq, at Tagulat in Shawa, built in 1441 to
commemorate the Egyptian monastery of the same
name which the Muslims had destroyed. The church
and palace at his last capital, Dabra Berehan, were
his most magnificent buildings. He’s remembered
today spiritually with the likes of Kaleb.
|Muslim leader Ahmad Gran conquers much of Ethiopia.|
|Empress Mentewab in the late 18th Century.|
Mentewab (means in Amharic, "How beautiful.")
Mentewab's Baptismal name is Walatta Giorgis, which means, "Daughter of Saint George."
Throne name: Berhan Magassa (which means, Glorifier of Light)
From the House of Solomon, her coronation was on December 23, 1730, where she became Empress of
Ethiopia. She was the consort of Emperor Bakaffa. She was the mother of Iyasu II (whose was also known
as Berhan Seged, which means, "He to whom the Light bows") and grandmother of Iyosas I.
Mentewab built several significant structures in Gondar including her own Castle in the Royal Enclosure
and a large banqueting hall as well. Most significantly she built a church dedicated to the Virgin Mary at
Qusquam (named for a site in Egypt where the Holy Family had stayed during their exile) in the mountains
outside of Gondar.
Monastery of Narga Selassie (Rest of the Trinity) is a church on Dek Island. It's the largest island in
Northern Ethiopia. It was constructed by Empress Mentewab in the late 18th Century.
Source: Tsega Tekle Haimanot ~ FB post ~ 10 Oct 2019
|King Sahle Selassie of Shewa|
Born in 1795 as the younger son of Meridazmatch Wossen Seged of Shewa, he had outmanuvered his elder
brother Bakure for the princely throne of Shewa upon their father's death in 1813. With the aid of his
Abichu Oromo allies was able to consolidate Shewan rule over the Tulama Oromo and over the districts of
Bulga and Karayu extending his rule into Arsi and Gurage. After ensuring that the Wollo Oromo areas to his
north would act as a buffer between his principality and the Yejju domains of the Imperial Regent Ras Ali II,
Sahle Selassie abandoned his old titles of Ras and Meridazmatch proclaiming himself King of Shewa, Yifat,
and the Oromo and Gurage people. The Emperor in Gondar aquieced to this new title although he had little
ability to do otherwise. It was however significant that the increasingly powerful head of the junior branch
of the Imperial Solomonic dynasty should adopt the title of King at a time that the head of the senior
Gondar line (the Emperor) was little more than a puppet of northern warlords. Sahle Selassie and his heirs
would henceforth be regarded as possible contenders for the Imperial throne itself. This ambition would
be realized when his grandson became Emperor Menelik II.
King Sahle Selassie was close to his mother, Woizero Zenebework, ruler of the districts of Menz and
Tegulet, and she exercised considerable power during his reign and the reign of his son Haile Melekot. He
was married to the equally formidable Woizero Bezabish who ruled over the districts of Yifat and Bulga.
The two queens remained powerful forces in Shewa well into the reign of his successor. He was succeeded
as King of Shewa by his son Haile Melekot. Sahle Selassie, Nigus of Shewa was the grandfather of Emperor
Menelik II, and great grandfather of both Empress Zewditu and Emperor Haile Selassie. He fathered scores
of children by many women, making the House of Shewa the largest of all the branches of the Imperial
|Lij Kassa conquers Amhara, Gojjam, Tigray and Shoa.|
|Born in Shawa, Ethiopia in 1844 with the baptismal |
name Sahle Mariam. Crowned King of Shawa in
1865. Married Taitu Betul (later Empress) at Easter
mass in 1883. Officially founded Addis Ababa as
Ethiopia's permanent capital in 1887. Crowned
Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia at St. Mary's church,
Mt. Entoto on the 3rd November 1889. Emperor
Menelik is perhaps most famous for leading Ethiopia
to victory against an Italian colonial force at Adwa in
1896. Negus of Abyssinia, Menelik II, at the Battle of
Source: RasTafari Haile Selassie I ~ FB post ~ 10 Oct
|Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael Guddesa of Harrar|
Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael (May 8, 1852 – March 21, 1906) is the father of Emperor Haile Selassie, and
first cousin and close confidante of Emperor Menelik II. He is the grandson of King Sahle Selassie of Shewa
through his mother Tenagnework Sahle Selassie.
|Ras Kassa becomes Emperor Tewodros II. Emperor Téwodros II (baptized as Sahle Dingil) (c. 1818 – April |
13, 1868) was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1855 until his death. Born Kassa Haile Giorgis, but was more
regularly referred to as Kassa Hailu (meaning "restitution" and "His [or the] power"). His rule is often
placed as the beginning of modern Ethiopia, ending the decentralized Zemene Mesafint (Era of the Princes).
|H.I.H ALEMAYEHU TEWODROS|
Dejazmatch Alemayehu Tewodros, often referred to as HIH Prince Alemayehu or Alamayou of Ethiopia (23
April 1861 – 14 November 1879) was the son of Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia. Emperor Tewodros II
committed suicide after his defeat by the British, led by Sir Robert Napier, at the Battle of Magdala in 1868.
Alemayehu's mother was Empress Tiruwork Wube.
The young prince was taken to Britain, under the care of Captain Tristram Speedy. The Empress Tiruwork
had intended to travel to Britain with her son following the death of her husband, but died on the way to
the coast leaving Alemayehu an orphan. Initially, Empress Tiruwork had resisted Captain Speedy's efforts
to be named the child's guardian, and had even asked the commander of the British forces, Lord Napier, to
keep Speedy away from her child and herself. After the death of the Empress however, Napier allowed
Speedy to assume the role of caretaker. Upon the arrival of the little Prince's party in Alexandria however,
Speedy dismissed the entire Ethiopian entourage of the Prince much to their distress and they returned to
While staying at Speedy's home on the Isle of Wight he was introduced to Queen Victoria at her home at
Osborne House. She took a great interest in his life and education. Alamayehu spent some time in India
with Speedy and his wife, but the government decided he should be educated in England and he was sent
to Cheltenham to be educated under the care of Thomas Jex-Blake, principal of Cheltenham College. He
moved to Rugby School with Jex-Blake in 1875, where one of his tutors was Cyril Ransome (the future
father of Arthur Ransome). In 1878 he joined the officers' training school at the Royal Military College,
Sandhurst, but he was not happy there and the following year went to Far Headingley, Leeds, West
Yorkshire, to stay with his old tutor Cyril Ransome. Within a week he had contracted pleurisy and died after
six weeks of illness, despite the attentions of Dr Clifford Allbutt of Leeds and other respected consultants.
Queen Victoria mentioned the death of the young prince in her diary, saying what a good and kind boy he
had been and how sad it was that he should die so far from his family. She also mentioned how very
unhappy the prince had been, and how conscious he was of people staring at him because of his colour.
Queen Victoria arranged for Alamayehu to be buried at Windsor Castle. The funeral took place on 21
November 1879, in the presence of Cyril Ransome, Chancellor of the Exchequer Stafford Northcote, General
Napier, and Captain Speedy. A brass plaque in the nave of St George's chapel commemorates him and bears
the words "I was a stranger and ye took me in", but Alamayehu's body is buried in a brick vault outside the
chapel. Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia arranged for second plaque commemorating the Prince to be
placed in the chapel as well.
In 2007, the Ethiopian government requested the return of Alemayehu's remains for reburial in Ethiopia.
Source: Tsega Tekle Haimanot FB Post ~ 01-04-2019
|Emperor Tewodros II defeated by a British expeditionary force and commits suicide to avoid capture.|
|Tigrayan chieftain becomes Yohannes IV.|
|THE CALL TO ARMS BY EMPEROR |
YOHANNES IV, THE LAST KING OF ZION
"Take heed the entire country: the nobility, the
soldiers, the entire citizenry, listen! The
Ethiopian government hereby firmly orders
you to make your way on the road to Massawa
for battle. Always march forward but never
"People of Ethiopia, always remember that
Ethiopia is for you:
First, your Mother
Second, your crown
Third, your wife
Fourth, your child
Fifth, your tomb...."
"Hence rise up fully aware of the love of a
mother, the honor of a crown, the kindness of a
wife, the joy of a child, the shelter of a grave,
since these are what are embodied in a
Source: Tsega Tekle Haimanot ~ 2 January 2021
|Ali Jackson ~ 8 November 2020|
Ras Makonnen Woldemikael Woldemelakot had 2
sons they were 17 years apart in age the younger of
the 2 sons was the only legitimate birth out of
church wedlock. Yilma Makonnen was the older of
the 2 sons with Tafari Makonnen being the younger
of the 2.
Many people think or assume that "Tafari
Makonnen Woldemikael Woldemelakot" better
known as Emperor Haile Selassie I was a only child.
The facts are that he had 1 sibling, his 17 years older
half brother who died at the age of 32 when Tafari
was only 15. Dejazmatch Yilma Makonnen
Woldemikael Woldemelakot (1875 - 1907) the
former Governor of Harar Ethiopia after his father
the Governor/Shum of Harar, Ras Makonnen
Woldemikael Woldemelakot born 1852 and died he
was 54 years old in 1906, Tafari was 14 years old at
Today is the 134th anniversary (26 January 2021) of the victory of the battle of Dogali, a war between the
invading colonial Italian and defending Ethiopian forces on 26 January 1887.
The battle of Dogali was a skirmish that was part of a larger conflict between the Italians and the
Ethiopians. At this time Ethiopians had the most well equipped standing army on the African continent. The
Italians by contrast had only recently emerged as a unified country and, even though they showed spirit in
fighting, they were not prepared in terms of manpower, equipment, intelligence and experience. This battle
was to be a stunning victory for the Ethiopian forces, as they totally routed the invading Italians on 26
On his own initiative, Ras Alula Engida, then governor under Emperor Yohannes IV, attacked the Italian-
controlled town of Sahati on the day prior. Hundreds of his men were slaughtered by cannon and rifle fire,
while only four Italians were injured, forcing Ras Alula to pull his men back.
The besieged Italians needed ammunitions and requested supplies.
On January 26, a battalion of 500 men (mostly Italians and a few Eritrean Askari) under Colonel Tommaso
De Cristofori, sent to reinforce the Italian garrison at Sahati, were attacked while in march by Ras Alula’s
men at Dogali. Although the 500 Italians fought back bravely against 7,000 Ethiopians, holding out for
hours until they exhausted all ammunition, nearly all were then killed, except for eighty wounded men who
were able to escape notice by the Ethiopians and be successfully rescued.
Although a small victory for the Ethiopians, Haggai Erlich notes that this incident only encouraged the
Italians to intrigue with Yohannes’ rival, Menelik II, then ruler only of Shewa, and encourage his
insubordination towards his Emperor.
Italians felt that the battle of Dogali was an insult to be avenged, and then started to attack Ethiopia in the
following years in order to get revenge.
The victory of Dogali (1887) represents the first successful resistance to European colonialism in Northeast
Africa, and as such its historical significance has been immense. For some obscure reason, however, it was
neglected in Ethiopian historiography until the last quarter of the 20th century when it was popularized for
academic and political purposes. Its impact in history was twofold: on the international level, it cracked the
Triple Alliance which ʿAdwa, the historical culmination of Dogali, subsequently rendered ineffective for
good. On the national or regional level, Dogali initiated a campaign for liberty and sovereignty which was
to last for decades and in which ʿAdwa and Maycäw were to stand as landmarks. These landmarks were
nonetheless fought deep in the heart of the country, and in this respect Dogali, which took place way out of
the effective control of the Empire, is no doubt exemplary.
Happy Dogali Victory Day !
From Petros Ashenafi page
Source: WunZooyah Queenmother Moses ~ 26 January 2021
|Yohannes IV killed while fighting Mahdist forces and is succeeded by the king of Shoa, who becomes |
Emperor Menelik II.
|Menelik II signs a bilateral friendship treaty with Italy at Wuchale which Italy interprets as giving it a |
protectorate over Ethiopia. Ethiopia rejects this interpretation, later renounces the treaty and repays a loan.
|Addis Ababa becomes Ethiopia's capital.|
|Her Imperial Majesty Empress Menen Asfaw "Itege Menen" born 3rd April 1891 (25th Megabit 1883)|
|Tsega Tekle Haimanot ~ 31 August 2020|
+ "A God Fearing Empress" +
Empress Menen Asfaw was born on 3rd April 1891
(25th Megabit 1883) in the Egua village of the
Ambassel region of the Wollo province. She was
baptized Wolete Giorgis (Daughter of St. George) in
the St. Delba Giorgis Church. Her name Menen was
given for the most beautiful respected ladies.
Empress Menen was known to be kind,
compassionate and devoutly God fearing.
As the devoutly religious woman she was, she did so
much to support the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo
Church as she built, renovated and endowed
numerous Churches in Ethiopia and in the Holy
Land. Prominent among them are the St. Raguel
Church in Addis Ababa's Merkato District, the Kidane
Mehret (Our Lady Covenant of Mercy) Church on
mount Entonto, and the Holy Trinity Monastery on
the banks of the river Jordan in the Holy Land. She
gave generously from her personal funds towards
the building of the new Cathedral of St. Mary of Zion
at Axum, but didn't to see it completed and
His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie, then
Governor of Harar in His twentieth year said this of
His wife, "...Her character is such that, apart from
goodness, there is no evil or malice in her.
Ever since, we were married, we lived together, by
virtue of her being fertile, in one family joy, as well
Empress Menen performed perfectly in the role of
Empress consort. In her public role she combined
religious piety, concern for social causes, and
support for development schemes with the Majesty
of her Imperial status.
Outwardly she was the dutiful wife, visiting schools,
Churches, exhibitions and model farms, attending
public state events at her husband's side or by
herself. She took no public stand on political or
May the Almighty God bless her memory eternal.
|July 23, 1892 (16 Hamle 1884) - Birthdate of Haile Selassie I as Ledj Tafari Makonnen in Ejarsa Goro in |
Harar, Ethiopia. Tafari is the son of Ras Makonnen, a Shoa Amharan nobel, who was married to an Oromo,
Waziero Yashimabet, who died two years after the birth of Ledj Tafari. Negus Ras Tafari Makonnen was
given his religious/spiritual name, Haile Selassie I (Might of the Trinity) upon his transfiguration on
November 2, 1930.
|"People see his majesty not only as a human-being but also an angel.He was the light of Ethiopia.[...]it is |
also told that His Majesty was born According to a prophecy.They prophesied that the child born will get
rid of sour and unpleasant,and he will judge for the poor. 'Koso' [a tree planted for His Majesty at birth]is a
bitter tasting tree but also a cure for the diseased stomach,and they said as 'Koso' is cure for the
stomach,this new born is the cure for the human suffering.So they planted a 'Koso' tree on his birth place.
A well known Muslim [...]planted the tree upon the birth.They asked him what is this?He said that the child
born today will be a great man,he will rule over Ethiopia and be a pride for Africa.He will give solutions to
our problem and give fair judgement.That is why he planted 'Koso' tree."
--Priest of the Kidane Mihret Church in Erjaso Goro where His Majesty Emperor Hayl Sellasse I was born
and the tree was planted; interview in the Ethiopian documentary called"Man of the Millennium".
Rastafari is the almighty.
Source: F.Mtshali ~ FB post ~ 9 Oct 2020
|Daneyel Z. Bozra ~ 11 August 2020|
Lij Tafari was an exceptionally bright and handsome child, extraordinarily soft spoken and was noted for
his behavioural patterns of regard for elders and honour for his father Ras Makonnen. Tracing his lineage
as far as iration Jesse is listed among his forefathers earthically, whom I&I recall was noted as being one of
the Blackest Jew of all times. Lij Tafari was to also fulfill prophesy as the Ethopian Coptic Church gave him
the name of Haile Selassie 1st meaning Power of the trinity. Lij Tafari manoeuvred his way to a position of
political indispensability and as Regent Plenipotentiary, ushered Ethiopia into the League of Nations. As a
youth Lij Tafari was granted minor and major appointments as Govenor of Selale, a little corner of the
realm located to the north west of Addis Ababa. He also served in the southern regions of Governor of
Sidamo Province not far from Shashamanie.
Innumerable stories have been told in relation to Lij Tafari and rumours cropped up in Addis that even
Tafari's trusted personal councillors assigned to the child was terrified of him; reluctant to shake his hands
or gaze upon his stark features. His sparse beard and penetrating almost black eyes and wild bushy locks,
and perfectly proportioned frame. Eldritch tales began to circulate about Tafari's boyhood, the most
noteable concerning his supposed ability to speak to animals. During his youth, it was claimed that he was
seen on more than one occasion in the bush conversing with leopards and lions and the fierce jungle beats
becoming docile at his feet. When the birds, the beasts and even the insects began to greet him and speak
to him, reminding him of what he already knew. When asked which was the first creature to speak to him,
Tafari replied by requesting a sheet of paper and some pastels and began to draw with extraordinary
accuracy, the picture of a bird, it resembled a dove, but with exotic multicoloured plummage. The priest
was about to ask Tafari what sort of bird it was, when he was dumbfounded as it flew out through the
nearby window, disappearing into the sky.
|The young Teferi was small and slight but it quickly |
became apparent that he had a strong intellect. His
father was very keen on his country extending links
with the modern world and Europe. He therefore
entrusted much of Teferi’s education to a French
Catholic Capuchin priest, Monsignor André
Jarosseau. Naturally the young child was also
schooled in the complicated ways and theology of
the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. The Monsignor said
that he raised Teferi as if he were his own son. Over
the years the two of them kept in touch. They were
said to have exchanged around 500 letters until the
Monsignor’s death in 1941. .Imperial Exile by Keith
**Lij Teferi Makonnen in 1895, age three, wearing
Father Andre Jarosseau's pectoral cross**
Haile Iyesus ~ 9 January 2019
|Ras Dread Selassie I is with Ras Immanuel Israel ~ 29 February 2020|
Battle of Adwa
On the evening of 29 February , Baratieri, about to be replaced by a new governor, General
Baldissera, met with his brigadier generals Matteo Albertone, Giuseppe Arimondi, Vittorio Dabormida, and
Giuseppe Ellena, concerning their next steps. He opened the meeting on a negative note, revealing to his
brigadiers that provisions would be exhausted in less than five days, and suggested retreating, perhaps as
far back as Asmara. His subordinates argued forcefully for an attack, insisting that to retreat at this point
would only worsen the poor morale. Dabormida exclaiming, "Italy would prefer the loss of two or three
thousand men to a dishonorable retreat." Baratieri delayed making a decision for a few more hours,
claiming that he needed to wait for some last-minute intelligence, but in the end announced that the attack
would start the next morning at 9:00am. His troops began their march to their starting positions shortly
On 29 February Baratieri marched in four separate columns on the Ethiopians at Adowa, where they
outnumbered his immediate command of 9,894 men by more than ten to one. The fighting began soon after
5:30 am on 1 March, when a horseman entered the Ethiopian camp with news of the Italian advance.
Ethiopian forces were well positioned to receive the Italians in a crossfire, and by noon the battle was
Though the two sides suffered nearly equal casualties—6,589 Italian regulars and Eritrean Ascaris dead;
and an estimated 7,000 Ethiopians—Baratieri's casualties accounted for two-thirds of his force. As a result
of the disaster, Italy was forced to sign the Treaty of Addis Ababa guaranteeing Ethiopian sovereignty.
Baratieri was court-martialed at Asmara; though he was acquitted, he was forced to resign his post the
following year. He spent the remainder of his life living in retirement in the Austrian Tyrol until his death
on 7 August 1901 at Sterzing.
Source: Ras Immanuel Israel ~ FB post ~ 1 March 2020
|The Battle Of Adowa | Emperor Menelik II, |
"Enemies have now come upon us to ruin our
country ......Our enemies have begun the affair by
advancing and digging into the country like moles.
With the help of God I will not deliver my country to
them. Today, you who are strong, give me your
strength, and you who are weak, help me by prayer"
Source: I-Ras Black E'Dd ~ FB post ~ 28 Feb 2020
|THE POWER OF PRAYER AND HOW RAIN BECAME A HERO OF THE BATTLE OF ADWA|
Ethiopians did not just rely in their age old patriotism and bravery that led to the defeat of the formidable
Italian army at Adwa on March 1, 1896. The Ethiopian army was fortified with The Ark, accompanied by
Tabots and clergy, and its fighters carrying their holy books and all from royal and aristocratic generals to
peasant fighters praying for Devine intervention on their behalf. Emperor Menelik, Itege Taytu and their
entourage said their final prayers at Kidus Giorgis church. Their prayers were not in vain.
On February 29, 1896, as the Italians matched towards Adwa there was an unseasonable downpour that
turned their path into a miserable muddy mess. Their heavy coats soaked and their boots filling with water
which they had to remove and pour from time to time led into great confusion and disorganization. The
thunder from the angry skies led to their scared animals running away. Ethiopian double agents like
Bashay Aw'alom on whom they relied as guides used the confusion created by the downpour to mislead
and lead them in pointless circles. To the hardened Ethiopians who have already travelled for hundreds of
miles through parched land the rain was a relief and a blessing. Many raised their hands and praised the
merciful God of Ethiopia for letting them know he had not forgotten them.
This is how the patriotic General Rain became an unsung hero who fought with us at Adwa. Blessed be the
name of our Lord!
Credit to doc Abebe Haregewoin
Source: I-Ras Black E'Dd ~ FB post ~ 27 Feb 2020
|Nyahbinghi Rastafari ~ 10 August 2020
Menelik II, King of kings of Ethiopia. A
direct descendant from the King
Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. An
highstanding figure; and mainly
credited for Ethiopia first victory over
Rome , in the battle of Adwa. The year
was 1896 1st March. Rome was
crushed at the Battle of Adwa, which
battle is prophetic according to the
book of revelation ch 12.
Born on the August 17, 1844, Angolalla
It was him that started the works of the
modernization of Ethiopia.
|Menelik II leads Ethiopians in victory over the |
Italian forces, at Adwa; treaty of Wuchale annulled;
Italy recognises Ethiopia's independence but retains
control over Eritrea.
"Go ahead with your threat, do it even in a week’s
time. No one here is afraid of your threats. We will
slaughter those who come to invade us. There is no
Ethiopian who will not plant his feet in the sand and
face death to save his country. To shed one’s blood
and lose one’s life for the motherland is not death, it
is an honor!…Do not even waste your time here. Go
on with your war. We will wait you eagerly ... "
~ Empress Taytu Betul
Ethiopia never colonized
Source: African Diaspora ~ FB post ~ 1 Mar 2020
|Menelik II defeats the Italians and signs the Treaty of Addis Ababa|
Born in Guadeloupe served Ethiopia faithfully.
Landing in Harar in 1902 to assist Ras Makonnen
Wolde Micheal in erecting a hospital in his province.
During his two-years in Harar, he was also a tutor to
Lij Tafari Makonnen.
Source: Camara Nicholes ~ FB post ~ 28 Feb 2020
|Ras Makonnen and his son.|
(This photograph, taken by Author, was the last
shortly before the Ras' death.)
|Tafari Makonnen assigned first military title |
"Dejazmach" (keeper of 'the Gate') by his father Ras
Makonnen. "Keeper of the Gate" is similar to the title
of "Count" in Western terms.
Often this day (1st November) is not given much
attention, but it's an important one which should be
also remembered and honored by those who claim
to follow HIM.
This year (2017) is to celebrate the 112th
anniversary of the 'Dejazmatch appointment' from
Lij Tafari Makonnen (Qedamawi Haile Selassie) by
H.H. Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael.
(Dejazmatch means literally "Commander of the
Source: Joannes Fey ~ FB Post 10-28-2017
|(13 Magabit 1898) - Tafari's Father, Ras Makonnen ascension|
|Tafari appointed position of Dejazmach|
|Dejazmach Tafari appointed (Governor) of his home |
province of Harar
|Dej Tafari marries Woizero Menen Asfaw |
(grand-daughter of Ras Michael)
Empress Menen is the only Empress to have been
crowned on the same day, during the same
ceremony, with the Emperor. An all-night service
was held in the St. George cathedral (above) on the
eve of the coronation. Negus Ras Tafari and his wife
Woizero Menen prayed in unison with richly
costumed priests and deacons, who danced, chanted
and beat drums and prayer sticks in time with the
music of harps, lyres, tambourines, cymbals and the
|Menelik II's ascension and is succeeded by his grandson, Lij Iyasu, who's reign was cut short when Lij |
Iyasu adopted Islam as his personal religion with intentions to make Islam the national religion of
Ethiopia. This was met with severe opposition and mutual consensus from the long-standing nobles and
royal advisors on replacing Lij Iyasu with well-respected and qualified, Tafari Makonnen.
| was Empress of Ethiopia from 1916 |
to 1930. The first female head of an internationally
recognized country in Africa in the 19th and 20th
centuries, and the first empress regnant of the
Source: The African History
|Tafari Makonnen is made Regent, given title of "Ras", |
and ascended to Heir to the Solomonic Throne. Ras
Tafari was advisor to Empress Zewditu and
embarked on a program to modernize Ethiopia by
building schools, hospitals, and modernizing the
army; while establishing relationships with other
The 101st Anniversary (09/27/2017)
On the 27th September 1916 (17th Mäskäräm 1909)
Archbishop Abuna Mattewos, Etchäge Waldä
Giyorgis with the priests and the nobles with the
army appointed Dejazmatch Tafari Makonnen; Ras
Crown Prince and Regent Plenipotentiary of the
Imperial Ethiopian Empire.
Source: The Church of Haile Selassie Inc.
Ourselves, by virtue of Our descent from the Queen of
Sheba and King Solomon, ever since We accepted in
trust, in 1909 (1916), first the regency of the
Ethiopian realm and later the Imperial dignity, right
up to the present, We have set out to the best of Our
ability to improve, gradually, internal administration
by introducing into the country western modes of
civilization through which Our people may attain a
higher level; hence Our conscience does not rebuke Us.
The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Sellassie I
|COMING OUT OF THE MOUTH OF RASTAFARI:|
On the 17th day of Maskaram 1909 (27th Sept. 1916), on the day of the great feast of Masqal, it was
arranged that the nobles with the army, and the Archbishop Abuna Mattewos, and the Etchage Walda
Giyorgis with the priests, should assemble at a prepared place within the precincts of the Palace; and when
they had all arrived and taken their seat according to their rank, the following indictment against Ledj
Iyasu, which had been secretly prepared, was read out:
'The Christian faith, which our fathers had hitherto carefully retained by fighting for their faith with the
Muslims and by shedding their blood, Ledj Iyasu exchanged for the Muslim religion and aroused
commotion in our midst; in order to exterminate us by mutual fighting he has converted to Islam and,
therefore, we shall henceforth not submit to him; we shall not place a Muslim king on the throne of a
Christian king; we have ample proof of his conversion to Islam:
(1) He married four wives claiming: "the Qur'an permits it to me". Of these wives one is the daughter of
Abba Jiffar of the Jimma nobility; the second is the daughter of Hajj Abdullahi of the Harar nobility; the third
is the daughter of Abu Bakr of the Adal nobility; the father of the fourth, Dejatch Djote, became a Christian
and baptized his daughter; while she lived under her baptismal name Askala Maryam, it was to Dejatch
Djote's daughter that he (Ledj Iyasu) later on, after his conversion to Islam, gave the Muslim woman's
name of Momina.
(2) He built a mosque at Jijjiga with government funds and gave it to the Muslims.
(3) At that time he sent to Mahazar Bey, the foreign [Turkish] consul resident at Addis Ababa—as he was
celebrating the Ramadan feast—our Ethiopian flag (on which there was written "The Lion of the Tribe of
Judah has prevailed" and adorned with the sign of the Cross) on which he had caused to be written the
following words (in Arabic): "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah".
(4) He wore Somali Muslim clothes and the Muslim turban, held the Islamic rosary, and was seen to
prostrate himself in the mosque.
(5) He was seen praying and reading the Qur'an having had it transcribed in Amharic
(6) On the headgear of his special guards he had embroidered the legend "there is no god but Allah".
(7) H.H. Ras Makonnen had built a church at Harar and had made the area adjoining the church into a
dwelling for the clergy, giving the Muslims a place in exchange; then, 32 years later, he (Ledj Iyasu)
expelled the clergy and restored it to the Muslims.
(8) When a girl was born to him he saw to it that she would grow up learning the Muslim religion, and he
gave her to the Muslim Madame Hanafi and said: "Bring her up on my behalf".
(9) He despised the descent of Menelik II, which comes direct from Menelik I, and claimed to be descended
from the Prophet Muhammad; assembling the great Muslim sheikhs he spent the day convincing them of
his genealogical calculations.
(10) The day on which our great king, Emperor Menelik, who had bequeathed him the throne, died, instead
of mourning and of arranging lamentations he went out horse-riding to Jan-Meda and spent the day playing
combat-games. He forbade Menelik's body to be buried with dignity and thus it has remained up to now.
We possess a great deal of further similar proof (against Ledj Iyasu).
Therefore, having deposed him (Ledj Iyasu), we have placed on the throne Wayzaro Zawditu, Emperor
Menelik's daughter. We have appointe Dejazmatch Tafari, the son of H.H. Ras Makonnen, Crown Prince,
with the rank of Ras, and Regent of the Empire.'
When the reading of this proclamation was concluded, all those assembled said with one voice: 'We accept
gladly, hence let it be carried out with success.' The Archbishop, Abuna Mattewos, and the Etchage Walda
Giyorgis spoke the following final words: 'Ledj Iyasu has repudiated the Christian religion and, because he
has been converted to the Islamic faith, we have excommunicated him; you will be excommunicated if
henceforth you follow Ledj Iyasu and submit to him—instead of living strong in the Orthodox faith and
watchful of the freedom of your government'.
Afterwards the proclamation was issued by which the Throne and the Crown went to Queen Zawditu, while
the succession to the Throne and the Regency Plenipotentiary went to me; the text of the proclamation was
then transmitted by telephone to the princes and nobles and all the provincial governors in the whole of
Source: HIM Haile Selassie I,Negus Negust, Earth rightfull ruler ~ FB post ~ 27 Sep 2019
|The 101st Anniversary of the Battle of Segale 1916.|
One battle to the Throne.
|THE BATTLE OF SEGALE (October 27th 1916)|
October 27, 2020 marks 104 years since the Battle of Segale in Ethiopia.
"......then Ras Tafari stated that because "bloodshed among Ethiopians themselves is extremely
THE BATTLE OF SEGALE
The Battle of Segale, fought on 27 October 1916, was a victory for the supporters of Empress Zawditu over
those of Iyasu V. Henze states that "Segale was Ethiopia's greatest battle since Adwa" (1896).
The nobility of Ethiopia had grown uneasy with the rule of Iyasu V. At last, when Iyasu failed to observe the
important religious holiday of Meskel in the capital Addis Ababa, instead he remained in the predominantly
Moslem city of Harar, they decided to strike. A number of nobles met 17 days later on 27 September, and
convinced Abuna Mattewos to excommunicate Iyasu on the accusation that he converted to Islam, then
announced on the steps of the Palace that Iyasu had been deposed in favor of Empress Zawditu.
The plotters had sent orders to Harar that Iyasu would be arrested, which went astray. Sources dispute
exactly what Lij Iyasu's did next. Bahru Zewde states that Iyasu started to march on Addis Ababa, but his
advance was blocked at Mieso by 15,000 soldiers and he fled into the Afar desert. Harold Marcus, drawing
on the reports filed by the European diplomats, states that instead Lij Iyasu had sent one force towards the
capital under Dejazmach Gebre, and another, raised from loyal Afars and Somalis, to secure Dire Dawa; the
Dejazmach went over to the opposing army and the Afars and Somalis deserted before reaching the city,
and Iyasu fled with his bodyguard to Jijiga. Aleqa Gebre Igziabiher Elyas's narrative supports Marcus in that
Iyasu fled to the desert where his Afar supporters helped him. In either case, Harar failed him as a base of
support and he took refuge in the desert.
His father and most important supporter, Negus Mikael of Wollo, was slow to march south upon the capital
and restore Iyasu to the throne, not moving until the middle of October. Yet, when he did, the Negus
crushed the troops sent against him. On 18 October, Negus Mikael's troops defeated an advance force of
11,000 men in Menz and killed their leader, Ras Lul Seged. Under the command of the regent Ras Tafari
(the future Emperor Haile Selassie) and Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis, a force estimated to number between
25,000 and 35,000 marched north to do battle and the two armies came to face each other at Segale on the
Afterwards, the then Ras Tafari stated that because "bloodshed among Ethiopians themselves is extremely
saddening, I arranged that monks from the monasteries of Debre Libanos and Zequala ... should come with
their crosses to request Negus Mikael to go back to Wollo without making war." Negus Mikael is said to
have simply arrested these emissaries, ignoring their message.
Negus Mikael opened the battle early in the morning, but his artillery was put out of commission by his
opponent and his machine-gunners ran out of ammunition. Aleqa Gebre-Igziabiher Elyas, drawing from
eyewitness accounts, describes the battle opening with a charge of Negus Mikael's infantry and cavalry.
However, the Shewan troops had been trained to fire their rifles in rows and from the prone position,
allowing them to fire in quick succession "and felled them like leaves." Then the Shewans attacked, "and
they pursued the army of Wello and took captives. And particularly the Shewan cavalry went from valley to
valley" and overran Negus Mikael's camp." At 3:25 pm, one of the Shewan officers telephoned to the capital
that they had won the battle. "The dead are very numerous on both sides." Aleqa Gebre-Igziabiher Elyas
explains one cause for this bloodshed was that the two sides did not differ in dress or insignia, and could
only distinguish each other by their passwords, which were not always well known to the soldiers. Bahru
Zewde succinctly comments: "The Wallo forces were defeated. Negus Mikael was captured. The coup of 27
September was now sanctioned by blood."
Negus Mikael defended himself in his corral until his defeat was undeniable, when he surrendered.
Amnesty was offered to the soldiers from the losing side, provided that they swear loyalty to the new
Empress. However, two of Negus Mikael's chief lieutenants escaped the battle unvanquished: Ras Yimer,
who managed to rally some of the defeated army and lead them to Dessie; and Fitawrari Sirah Bizu, who
discarded his weapons and battle-dress and slipped from the battlefield in the garb of a sick priest with a
single servant, and met up with Ras Yimer in Dessie. Dejazmach Gebre Igziabiher who had been a
lukewarm supporter of Negus Mikael sat out the battle, but when the Negus surrendered and he attempted
to flee back to Welo, the peasants of Aliyu Amba ambushed and killed him.
As for the deposed Lij Iyasu, he had just reached Ankober by the time the battle ended; he led his small
army of 6,000 into the desert back to Dessie, arriving there 8 November and joining with Ras Yimer and
Fitawrari Sirah Bizu. When the Imperial army reached that town 10 December, he fled further north to the
old stronghold of Amba Mariam, further away from the center of power.
Source: Tsega Tekle Haimanot FB Post ~ 10-27-2018
|Newly Discovered Documents Reveal, Ras Tafari |
Crowned 'Lord of Lords' in 1917
Let’s be clear: Haile Selassie I is the only person in the
history of the world to hold the complete appellation of
God and to fulfill all of the prophecies of the Lord. He
will be remembered in one context only and that is as
the Highest himself, not as simply a Ethiopian
monarch or a shrewd politician. Many people can call
themselves God but only the true God can fulfill
Source: Omar Tobijah ~ FB post 5 Oct 2019
||Tsega Tekle Haimanot
15 January 2021
Kebur Zabagna (ክቡር ዘበኛ)
The history of the Ethiopian Imperial Guard (Kebur Zabagna ክቡር ዘበኛ )
|Kebur Zabagna (ክቡር ዘበኛ) or "Honorable Guard" was the Ethiopian Imperial Guard. Also known as the
First Division, this unit served the dual purposes of providing security for the Emperor of
Ethiopia, and being an elite infantry division. It was not, however, part of the organizational structure of the
Ethiopian regular army as it was part of the Zebagna, the Addis Ababa Guard. The Kebur Zabagna was
based at Addis Ababa. Richard Pankhurst dates the formation of the Imperial Bodyguard (previously
known as the Mehal Sefari) to 1917, when the Regent Ras Tafari (later the Emperor Haile Selassie)
assembled a unit under his direct control from men who had trained in the British army in Kenya as well as
a few who had served under the Italians in Tripoli. In 1930 as king or Negus he invited a Belgian military
mission to train and modernize the Ethiopian military, which included the Kebur Zabagna. The unit was
organized in three battalions of trained regular infantry armed with rifles, machine guns and mortars; one
battalion consisted of men from the earlier mahal safari. The Kebur Zabagna also had one heavy machine-
gun company. It was commanded by Ethiopian graduates of Saint Cyr, the French military academy, at the
time of the Italian invasion of Ethiopia. As a unit, the Imperial Bodyguard only participated in the Battle of
Maychew (31 March 1936), but afterwards many of its members joined the various groups of the
|Following the return of Emperor Haile Selassie to Ethiopia, the Kebur Zabagna was reconstituted, and a
Swedish military mission aided in its training. Men for the Kagnew Battalion, which fought in the Korean
War, were drawn from the Imperial Bodyguard. "It remained the elite force of the empire," notes historian
Bahru Zewde, "until discredited in the wake of the attempted coup of 1960." That unsuccessful coup had
been planned by its commander Brigadier-General Mengistu Neway, and his brother Germame Neway. In
1961 it numbered nine battalions; in 1969 some 7,000 men. In 1974 the Commander was Major-General
Tafessa Lemma. The Kebur Zabagna was disbanded after the Derg consolidated their hold on Ethiopia.
|Ethiopia, represented by Regent Ras Tafari, becomes a member of the League of Nations (An international |
organization formed in 1920 to promote peace and co-operation between countries).
|Your Highness’ presence amongst us is apt to |
strengthen and to renew those memories of 1600
years. Two Greeks, the sons of Meropius the
merchant, Frumentius and Aedesius, were taken
prisoner at the Ethiopian seaboard and thus entered
the country. They founded the Church of Ethiopia by
teaching the country’s inhabitants and by becoming
apostles of the faith.Your Highness, the affection
which binds the two countries together began at
that time. In the year 325 Athanasius, the great
bishop of Christian Greece, bestowed at Alexandria
the name of founder of the Church of Ethiopia upon
Frumentius and did so with great glory. And he also
anointed him bishop of the Ethiopian Church. We
are aware that Ethiopia’s success in guarding her
independence at all times arises from the mountains
which have been given to her by nature and which
separate her from all the other African countries. It
is proper to say that Ethiopia has been the bastion of
Christianity for more than a millennium among the
savages and pagans in the arid desert. Homer said of
the Ethiopians that they excelled above others.
Diodorus speaks of their virtue. He admires their
fight for their freedom.
At the time of Alexander the Great and his heirs
Greek culture had entered Ethiopia and had opened
a new road of civilization. It left written monuments
(a map) which demonstrate its progress. The
Ptolemies and the Byzantine kings desired the
Ethiopian people to establish a basis and to extend
their rule up to the Red Sea. When Byzantium fought
with the Persians, it threw into the battle the might
of the Ethiopians. Your Highness' country was a
crossroads and meeting point of the civilized nations
in the Mediterranean and Indian areas. Since the
Greeks were at that time held in great honour in
Ethiopia, the Ethiopian kings are said to have known
the Greek language.... Monsieur Dimetri Papapouleas
**The Regent of Ethiopia RasTeferi in Greece 1924**
Source: Haile Iyesus FB Post ~ 10-11-2017 ~
|Afterwards, on Thursday, 8th Miyazya 1916 (16th |
April 1924), We set out from Addis Ababa and went
down to Jibuti. Here are the names of the princes
and nobles to whom it had been granted to
Ras Haylu Takla Haymanot, Ras Seyum Mangasha,
Dejazmatch Nadaw Abba Wallo, Dejazmatch Gassasa
Walda Hanna, Dejazmatch Gabra Sellasse Barya
Gaber, Dejazmatch Mullugeta Yegazu, Dejazmatch
Hayla Sellasse Abaynah, Ligaba Wadaje Webe, Blatta
Heruy Walda Sellasse, Ledj Makonnen
Endalkatchaw, Dejazmatch Wand Bawassan Kassa,
Ato Sahle Tsadalu.
Source: Ras Dread Selassie I ~ FB post ~ 16 Apr 2020
|Ras Tafari Makonnen visits Rome, Paris, and London||
|Left: His Majesty in Italy 1924|
Right: 5th Century A.D. Icon of Christ "Pantocrator"
(Emperor), discovered in 1930 by G.Soteriou on
Mount Sinai, where Moses saw God.
Source: Tekle Selassie ~ 24 January 2021
||Opens Postal Head Office - 1927 (HIM ~ Selected Speeches ~ Chapter XII)
|H.I.H. EMPRESS-MENEN SPEAKS:|
Sept. 13, 1928. Empress Menen disclosed the aggression to World Women Association and appealed to all
world nation states.
"I am pleased to present my speech to all world women. When Italy conquered our people and country the
World Women Association supported us to settle peace and freedom. We are very happy to express our
deep feeling for the association.
When I am speaking now in order to be understood to all countries my daughter princess Tsehaye
translated my speech into English language.
Princess Tsehaye made the speech as follows. “During this time Italy invaded us unjustly, causing great
difficulties and world women should let their voice be heard.
Even though world women are living in different countries with different climates, all women are
interrelated with the same will and objectives.
War is distress and trouble for mankind. For all world women in different countries, different races, and
religions, the act of violence and war victimized their husbands, brothers and children. War is a destruction
of the family and can make people immigrants. So women are against war."
Source: Camara Nicholes ~ FB post ~ 24 Feb 2020
|On September 13, 1928, Itegue Menen gave a speech to the World Women’s Association on Mussolini's |
fascist Italy's plans to invade Ethiopia:
"We are indeed glad for this evening which has caused our voice to be heard by all women throughout the
world. Regardless of the different climate they live in, women in this world are connected and have the
same desire in maintaining world peace and love. Obviously, war is one of the major problems which bring
disaster in the life of mankind. In spite of the difference of color, race, creed and religion between women in
this world, they all hate war because the fruit of war is nothing but disaster. War exterminates their
beloved husbands, their brothers and their children. It destroys and eliminates their families. At this hour,
and such a tragic and sad period where aggressors have planned a very heavy war upon our lives ,we
would like to bring this to the attention of all women throughout the world that it is their duty to voice and
express solidarity against such acts."
Source: Ato K. D. Roberts ~ FB post ~ 25 Mar 2020
|Utterance of Her Imperial Majesty Empress Menen Asfaw, on September 13th 1928, Her Majesty made a |
speech at the World Womens Association and reasoned with them of the aggression Italy had on Ethiopia. I
have translated part of her speech from Amharic...
"War is a human tragedy and problem. Although the women of the world live in different countries with
different races and religions, their war actions are destroying their husbands, brothers, sons, families and
all living beings, as women we are against war.
We know that all Italian mothers and barren women can worry about the war because war is good for
nothing. Therefore, all women in the world must stop the war before it causes problems and stress. They
must cooperate in a vote to end the war before bloodshed on both sides.
Ethiopia does not want violence to resolve conflicts. Her ambition is to maintain consensus. Ethiopia tried
to resolve the conflict in the first months. Ethiopia is doing the best it can, so we are mentally
and spiritually free. Any foreigners who come to work diligently and fairly will welcome Ethiopians. They
have a natural hospitality to foreigners in the history of the world. But a neighbouring country of Ethiopia
is trying to control it and buy it. Ethiopia has always been the son of the unity line, while the rival nation
looks to its own advantage. The enemy deployed the army to kill our enemies, brothers and children, and
encamped around our country.
Ethiopians work together and pray together, celebrating the love and glory of the Almighty, but the enemy
is trying to modernize our family by destroying the nation's wealth. We pray to the Almighty that we will
not encounter such anguish and calamity if the transformation of modernity has caused such great
destruction. Therefore, a union formed to form a union with women in the world must contribute to the
unification and stability of Ethiopia."
Source: Reginald Cunnings ~ FB post ~ 29 May 2020
Give thanks unto jYah for life, jYah blessings love and peace unto ini ❤️❤️"
|(27 Meskarem 1921) - Regent Ras Tafari Makonnen ascends to the office of King and assumes the title |
Negus and crowned Negus Tafari.
***This day in Ethiopian history, October 7, 1928: The crowning of Ras Teferi Makonnen as Negus Teferi
It would be the 1st time in Ethiopia's history that a King ruled alongside a ruling Monarch; who in this case
was Empress Zaditu, daughter of Emperor Menelik II. Due to Ras Teferi's knowledge of foreign affairs, and
understanding of the changing times, certain of the nobles and military decided that it would be in
Ethiopia's best interest to have H.R.H. Ras Teferi rule alongside Her Imperial Majesty.
Blessed Sabbath in the name of H.I.M. Qedamawi Haile Selassie and Empress Itege Menen !
Blessed 89th Anniversary (as of 07-Oct-2017) of the Crowning of H.H. Crown Prince Regent , known at that
time as Ras Tafari Makonnen and Princess Woizero Menen . 7th Oct 1928.
Taken from the Autobiography of Emperor Haile Selassie I.
About Our receiving the dignity of kingship without ceasing to be Heir Apparent.
....Subsequently, the ministers and nobles living at Addis Ababa as well as the army commanders and all
men holding office reached agreement unanimously and declared: ‘Worthless common people rise up from
time to time against our Crown Prince and create upheaval; perhaps on some future occasion, when similar
disturbances arise, we may fail to prevent internal bloodshed; it is, therefore, necessary to think of means
of restraining such commotion. For this purpose it is best to act as follows: Empress Zawditu should have
solely the honour of the Crown and the Throne—as was established when first she succeeded to the reign,
leaving the task of government entirely to the Crown Prince, while the latter should carry out on his sole
authority the whole business of government (as was defined and initiated on 17th Maskaram 1909 = 27th
September 1916), without consulting the Empress and without obtaining her permission. In order that his
authority should possess force and be respected, it would be best for us to arrange that he should attain
the dignity of Kingship.' Once they had decided this, they assembled in the wide square within the palace
precincts and approached Empress Zawditu in writing: ‘May it please you to have H.H. Crown Prince Tafari
proclaimed King and have him carry out, on his sole authority, any government business without having to
Empress Zawditu summoned her special counsellors, and when they proffered her advice it seemed to
them an extremely difficult matter. In truth, I myself felt it to be very difficult. For, once proclaimed King of
some large part of Ethiopia, I could not go there or else the Empress would need another Regent. As King I
could scarcely reside at Addis Ababa, for it was not customary for two Kings to reside in one city. She
therefore sent word to them to be given time in which to ponder the matter.
This proposal by the people was awkward not only for Empress Zawditu but even for myself. I therefore
summoned three men from the assembled nobles and dispatched them to the people with this message: ‘It
would be good if the idea which you have had that the work of government be accomplished by one man's
sole and undivided design could be carried out, but it would be as well if the proposal as regards the
Kingship were not raised. Arrange for this matter to be dropped, for it might appear that I had incited you
in the desire to become King; it is God alone who knows that I am not involved in this affair but people do
not know.' They sent word back to Us: ‘We cannot go back on it, for the reason we have acted was that we
were mindful of the honour of our realm and the benefit and peace of the people—without favouring
anyone.' We therefore kept quiet.
Later on, when they saw the reply which had reached them from Empress Zawditu asking for time to
ponder the matter, they presented to her a further written submission which all of them signed and sealed:
The fact that Empress Zawditu was asking for time to think about it was simply to obtain time in order to
issue a refusal after consultation with her friends who follow her own way of thinking and who do not like
modern conditions; or to bring about, on these grounds, a situation in which revolution and civil war
would be created. 'However that may be’, their submission ran, ‘we are determined to do what is
necessary, being assembled here and not intending to disperse unless you give us the reply today.'
Moreover, the people of the city did not know the true reason why the ministers, nobles, and army
commanders had assembled in the palace grounds, and it needed very little for them to start a revolution.
Empress Zawditu caused the declaration which had been presented to her with signatures and seals, to be
read; and, when she had understood it, she thought it would be preferable to accept their counsel in order
to avoid bloodshed. She then directed that the following written announcement be read out to them: 'It is
my wish that the Crown Prince be crowned as King on a date determined by you on the basis of the advice
tendered by you.' Consequently security and calm returned. Thereupon they pushed each other forward
penetrating as far as the internal courtyard and clapped hands with joy. Then they conveyed their thanks
saying: ‘Long live H.M. the Empress! May Ethiopia live for ever.' They then went back to their homes.
The next morning they assembled once more and claimed that it would be better for this affair of the
Kingship to be accomplished within three days, lest second thoughts should ruin this matter if further delay
were to occur. We convinced them, however, of the impossibility of a thing like Kingship being carried out
within two or three days and, furthermore, of the need to inform each of the governments of our
neighbours, so that their representatives might come and take part in our joy. It was, therefore, decided
that the coronation should take place one month hence, on 27th Maskaram 1921 (= 7th October 1928).
As there was rejoicing about Empress Zawditu’s approval that We were to be proclaimed King, and since
the British, French, and Italians, who possess colonies in our neighbourhood, were delighted, the British
Government dispatched to Addis Ababa the Governor of Berbera, Mr. Kittermaster, the French Govern
ment sent the Governor of Jibuti, M. Chapon Baissac, and the Italian Government the Governor of Eritrea,
Signor Corrado Zoli.
When everything that was required for this festival of Kingship had been prepared, the whole great
ceremony which is enacted for crowning a King of the Ethiopian Empire took place on 27th Maskaram 1921
(= 7th October 1928); We received the crown from the hands of Empress Zawditu, and the festive day
passed off with dignity .
Psalms for the Sabbath :
2, 20 , 48, 92, 110, 116, 149.
Act ch 2 .
Rastafari peace and luv . More blessings and guidance through the Sabbath . Trod with luv and
Source: Nyahbinghi Rastafari ~ FB Post 10-07-2017
|91 years ago (from today - Oct 7, 2019) on this day, |
October 7th, 1928 G.C./ Meskerem 27, 1921 E.C.,
Teferi Mekonnen was crowned Negus (King).
***Note: The Crowning of Ras Teferi Mekonnen as
Negus (King) occurred two years prior to him
ascending the Imperial Throne as Negusa Nagast
(King of Kings/Emperor) Haile
Selassie I on Tekemt 23, 1923 E.C. / November 2,
|✝Negus Day: PSALMS 47❤|
1 O clap your hands, all ye people; shout unto God/‘Elohim with the voice of triumph.
2 For the LORD/YHVH most high is terrible; he is a great King over all the earth.
3 He shall subdue the people under us, and the nations under our feet.
4 He shall choose our inheritance for us, the excellency of Jacob whom he loved. Selah.
5 God is gone up with a shout, the LORD with the sound of a trumpet.
6 Sing praises to God, sing praises: sing praises unto our King, sing praises.
7 For God is the King of all the earth: sing ye praises with understanding.
8 God reigneth over the heathen: God sitteth upon the throne of his holiness.
9 The princes of the people are gathered together, even the people of the God of Abraham: for the shields of
the earth belong unto God: he is greatly exalted.
Source: Josh David Barret ~ FB post ~ 7 Oct 2020
|Ethiopian Royalty ~ 1928
|Her Royal Highness Zewditu|
Queen of the Kings of Abyssinia
Empress of Ethiopia
|Negus RasTafari and Empress Zewditu|
|NEGUS TAFARI PREVAILS|
The Abuna of Ethiopia signed in 1929 a document proclaiming Negus Tafari Makonnen a devout Son of the
Ancient Church of Ethiopia and excommunicated all those who dared to challenge him.
The six Bishops of Ethiopia sent out encyclicals to their flocks hailing Ras Tafari as a truly Christian King.
These documents the Negus Ras Tafari took away to his private printing press where he gad them
reproduced as leaflets,thousands were reproduced.
In March 28 ,1930 Ras Gugsa moved with a force of some 38,000 tribesmen. The Negus Tafari was far more
advanced than Gugsas and so was his Military machine. The Negus had an Air Force he had an Air courier
,he was in constant contact..
Miraculously, one day before Gugsa moved his troops , a foreign plane had suddenly appeared and landed
on a field outside the capital where the Negus kept his planes, this was against Ethiopian Laws. In the plane
was a Frenchman, his daughter and his wife. They were on a Safari across Africa and was flying over
Their plane was impounded and they were placed under arrest. The Negus Ras Tafari soon heard about
them and sent for them at once and told them that he would release their plane and give them their
freedom on the condition that they fly North the following day and scatter leaflets over some tribes who
were in rebellion.
At dawn the next day A French man who were in the service of the Negus small Air Force took off with the
crew,he was to distribute the leaflets at certain areas. The plane soon swooped low over the trembling
Ethiopians and leaflets flooded the scared soldiers. The leaflets were prints from the declaration from the
Abuna of Ethiopia hailing Ras Tafari as a true Son of the Church. Some papers showed the
excommunication of Ras Gugsa as a traitor to the Empress His Regent and His religion,A third batch of
leaflets warned the Tribalists that if they did not desert,the bird in the sky now circling above would return
and deal death to them.
The battle began on March 31,1930 it did not last long as many of the tribes men had deserted, Ras Hailu
and his men had completely withdrawn. At 9 A,M two planes from the Negus Air Force roared out of the
sky upon Gugsa's camp dropping small bombs among the terrified soldiers. The planes then scattered hand
grenades. There was more noise, fire and flames than actual damage. Ras Mulugeta and the Shoan army
then fell upon the rebels running them down with machine gun fire and artillery then advancing.
Ras Gugsa and his Body Guards held out for a little while but eventually he was shot. The Empress guessed,
for she heard the booming of the Victory drums and the firing of Gun Salute.
The confirmation that Ras Gugsa was dead was too much for her, twenty four hours later the Empress of
Ethiopia Zauditu was dead, Feudal Ethiopia had died. Ethiopia like a Phoenix was rising the Negus to
become Emperor the Emperor of Aethiopia a cosmic figure.
Source: Haile Selassie Institute's ~ FB post ~ 26 Aug 2019
|The above chronology compiled by Malchijah, please contact me for updates.|
|Nothing is hidden from God's view!...|
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